The Federal Democratic Republic is located in South Asia. It is between China and India, roughly trapezoidal shape, BOO kilometers (497mi) long and 200 kilometers (124 mi) wide, with an area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 27 million. It has exotic floras and fauna as well as interesting human settlements and cultures with 36 different ethnic groups. It is doubtless to say it is diversity in unity.
Mount Everest, the highest point of the earth is located in Nepal where tourists in large number visit to climb and see the Himalayan ranges , its natural beauty and historical sites.
Nepal is commonly divided into three geographical regions: Himalayan, and. The highest point is Mount Everest (8,848 m) and the lowest point is in the Terai plains of Kechana Kalan in Jhapa (60 m).
HIMALAYA PEOPLE (MONGOLIAN FACE):
The Himalayan region lies in the northern part of the kingdom. This region stretches from east to west. In the northern most part of this region, there are some of the highest peaks of the world. This part is always covered with snow. The southern part of this region is less cold. Himalayan region, crops are cultivated, animals are reared and carpets and wool are produced in large quantities. There are villages and small towns as well.
Himalayas are the Tibetan-speaking groups namely Sherpas,Dolpa-pas,lopes, Baragaonlis, Manangis. The Sherpas are mainly found in the east, Solu and Khumbu region;the Baragaonlis and Lopes live in the semi-deserted areas of Upper and Lower Mustang in the Tibetan rain-shadow area; the Manangis live in Manang district area; while the Dolpa-pas live in Dolpa district of west Nepal.
- Food:The people in this region eat ‘Dhindo’ (a pudding- like food made from maize or millet), bread,potato and meat. They also have a special type of sea which is prepared from tea-leaves,salt and ghee.
- Housing:Most of the houses in this region have a single storey. Some of them have stone roofs and some are thatch-roofed.
c.Costume: The people wear thick woolen clothes.
They wear snow shoes which are called ‘Docha’. The women wear ornaments of gold, silver and copper. Men also keep long hair, like women.
- Health:The people work hard and eat a lot and they rarely fall ill. The people are quite strong and healthy. Health centre and health posts are also established in some of the places.
- Education:In the past, the people had to come down to the hilly region for education. But now, attempts are being made to educate the people of this region and there are schools up to secondary level.
- Agriculture:Agriculture is the main source of income of the people living in this region. They cultivate maize,millet,potatoes,fruit and vegetables. Animal farming is one of the main occupations. They rear cows, sheep, mountain-goats (Chyangra), yaks, etc. which give them milk, cheese, butter, meat, etc.
- Industry:There are some cottage industries. They produce carpets,blankets,etc.from the raw wool of the sheep. They also make thick woolen jackets for their use. Cheese,butter,ghee are made from animal products. Mustang and Jumla districts are famous for apple. There are apple related industries as well.
- TradeThe people in this region carry on barter trade with the people of Tibet. They also carry their local products like carpets, hides, herbs, fruit and wool to the Terai and big towns of the country. They sell these and buy salt, cloth, kerosene oil and utensils.
- Transport:Transportation is the most difficult problem in this region. During recent years, some of the places in this region like Taplejung, Lamidanda, Faplu, Jomsom, Shyangboche, Jumla, etc. have been connected by air services. But these are not sufficient for local transportation. Horses and mules are the main means of transport. Very often, people are seen carrying heavy loads on their backs
HILLS PEOPLE (ARYAN FACE):
The Hilly region is situated in the central part of the country. It spreads from Mechi in the east to Mahakali in the west. It has high hills and rocks. There are certain valleys surrounded by hills from all sides. Kathmandu, Pokhara, Surkhet, Dang-Deokhuri, etc. are such valleys. The hilly region lies at a fairly high altitude. So this region has a moderate type of climate. It is neither too cold, nor too hot. There is heavy rainfall from June to September. It also receives winter rain. Moreover, Pokhara valley gets the heaviest rainfall in Nepal.
The main ethnic group Rai, Limbu, Tamang, Magar, Sunwar, Gurung and Chepang groups as well as other mongoloid groups live in this areas. The Brahmans, Chhetris, Newar and Thakuris and different occupational groups Kami, Damai, Sarki, Gaine are spread generally over most parts of the country. In towns Newar, Marbadi, Punjabi, Brahman, Kshetri and other mixed groups are also settled. The groups of Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Magar are popular as Gurkha solder in the world.
- Food:Rice is the main food of the people of this region. Some people also eat bread. they eat meat, eggs, milk, curd, butter, ghee, etc. which they get from domestic animals.
- Costume:Male members wear Daura, Suruwal, coat and cap, Female members wear cholo, fariya and patuka. Men in the town wear pants, shirt and coat and women wear sari and blouse.
- Housing:Most of the houses in this region are made of stone and clay. they have thatched foofs. There are single storey houses. In the town areas, multi storey buildings are also seen.
- Health:Government has established Health Centers and Health Posts in various places of this region. In the town areas, there are many big hospitals. Kathmandu, the capital of the country, has many large hospitals. Patients from all over the country come to benefit themselves of the treatment available in the capital town.
- Education:The hilly region is the centre of education in the country. The centres of education are: Kathmandu, Pokhara, Tansen, Dhankuta, Birendranagar, Banepa, etc.There are many Primary and Secondary Higher Secondary Schools, Campuses and Universities in this region.
- Agriculture:Agriculture is the main occupation of the people living in this region. They cultivate maize, wheat, rice, millet, soybeans, etc. Rice and wheat cultivated in the valleys and river basins. Other crops are cultivated in the hills. The people also rear domestic animals and grow fruits and vegetables.
- industry: Many industries are set up in this region. There are cement, bricks and tiles, textile, biscuit, leather and shoes, beer and wine and other industries in the Hilly region. In addition to these industries, there are Industrial Estates in morang ,are of sunsari, Balaju,Patan, Bhaktapur and Pokhara. nepaljung There are various cottage and small-scale industries as well.
- Trade:In this region, some people earn their living from trade and business. Kathmandu is the centre of trade and business. Other business centres are Dhankuta, Pokhara, Tansen, Ghorahi, Surkhet, etc.
TERAI PEOPLE (TERAI FACE):
The terai region lies in the southern part of the kingdom of Nepal. It spreads from Mechi in the east to Mahakali in the west. The terai in the east is wider – a than in the west. The southern part of the terai has fertile soil, while the northern part is full of stones, boulders and sands. The terai is situated at about 60 to 300 meters from the sea level. It has a hot climate. During summer,its temperature goes up to 40 degree Celsius. It receives rainfall during June to September. The eastern part of terai receives more rainfall than the western part. It is affected by floods during the rainy season.
The main ethnic groups in Terai are Tharus,Darai, Kumhal,Majhi,Dhimal, Sater,Jhagar, Koche,Meche, Rajbansiand other groups. They speak north Indian dialects like Maithili,Bhojpuri. Owing to the fertile plains of Terai, most inhabitants live on agriculture. There are,however,some occupational castes like Majhi (fisherman), Kumhal (potter) and Donuwar (cart driver).
- Food:Rice and bread are the main food of the people of this region. The people also rear cattle which provide them with milk, cheese, ghee, eggs, and meat. Among the fruits, mango is quite popular. It is grown in most parts of the terai.
- Costume: Terai has a hot climate. So, the people wear light cotton dresses. Most of the male members are seen in lungis in villages. In the town area, man wear pants and shirts and women wear saris and blouses.
- Housing:In the villages, the houses ore small huts. The Tharus, Satars, Rajbansis,etc. have peculiar houses. They are made of clay,thatch roofs, and very small in size. One has to bow down to enter these houses. Several paintings of pictures of birds, animals and flowers are seen on the wall. The terai towns have big modern buildings.
- Health:Terai people suffered from malaria, small-pox and other dangerous diseases in the past. But now many such diseases have already been eradicated. So the terai has become one of the most pleasant places to live in. There are hospitals, health centers and health posts in every part of this region.
- Education:Many primary and secondary schools have been established in every part of terai region. There are higher secondary schools and campuses in town areas. The main centers of learning are Bhadrapur, Biratnagar, Birgunj, Rajbiraj, Taulihawa, Nepalgunj, Dhangadhi, etc. There is a rapid increase in the literacy percentage in the terai.
- Agriculture:Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of the terai. The terai is the main agricultural centre of the country. It produces sufficient food-stuff to feed the people of the country. Rice, wheat, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, etc. are the main agricultural products of the terai. Fruits and vegetables are also cultivated in large areas.
- Industry:The terai is the centre of industries of Nepal. The first industry was established in the terai. Biratnagar, Janakpur, Birgunj, Hedauta, Butwal, Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj are the famous industrial towns of the country. Industries like jute, sugar, soap, cigarette, cotton, cement, leather and shoe, textile, etc. are loccated in these industrial town.
- Trade:There are some big business centers in the terai region. They are: Bhadrapur, Dhulabari, Biratnagar, Birtamode, Itahari, Dharan, Janakpur, Birgunj, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Dang ,Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, Mahendranagar, etc. Many of these towns are located at the border of the country with India. So, Nepalese goods are exported and Indian goods are imported through these towns. The people of the terai are progressive in trade and business.